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Larger, bi-level ovens have been unearthed which would have been more suitable for baking commercial quantities.
They have a top rack to hold the loaves, while the fire below is stoked with "the grass of the field, which today is alive and tomorrow is thrown into the oven..." (Mt. These baking techniques and others were known to the Romans, whose own commercial bakeries were not established unitl a relatively late date (171-168 B. Once Roman administrative genius was applied to even so commonplace a task as breadmaking, the results would be impressive." ---The Bible Cookbook, Daniel S. 371) About ancient Roman ovens "Many kitchens had an oven, furnus, sometimes called a fornax...
There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing.
It is the oven which influences the final character of the loaf; the effieciencycy of an oven, or lack of it, can determine the success or failure of any bread baker's business. It was the Egyptians who first used a manufactured portable oven.
This was a beehive- or barrel-shaped container of baked clay, usually divided into two by a central horizontal partition.
The lower section formed the fire-box in which were burned pieces of dried wood, foten taken from the Nile, or even dried animal dung.
When the heat was sufficient the embers were raked out and the pieces of dough placed in the hollows and covered over.
In Jerusalem there was a bakers' quarter where bread was baked in tiers of stone-built ovens, or furnaces as they were called in the Bible.